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2.1. Invoking the Interpreter

The Python interpreter is usually installed as /usr/local/bin/python on those machines where it is available; putting /usr/local/bin in your Unix shell’s search path makes it possible to start it by typing the command


to the shell. Since the choice of the directory where the interpreter lives is an installation option, other places are possible; check with your local Python guru or system administrator. (E.g., /usr/local/python is a popular alternative location.)

On Windows machines, the Python installation is usually placed in C:\Python27UNISEX MUSIC Blue MESSENGER BAG TRAVEL BAG HOLIDAY SHOULDER MAN BAG COMPACT WOVEN r4Yqr, though you can change this when you’re running the installer. To add this directory to your path, you can type the following command into the command prompt in a DOS box:

set path=%path%;C:\python27

Typing an end-of-file character (Control-D on Unix, Control-Z on Windows) at the primary prompt causes the interpreter to exit with a zero exit status. If that doesn’t work, you can exit the interpreter by typing the following command: quit().

The interpreter’s line-editing features usually aren’t very sophisticated. On Unix, whoever installed the interpreter may have enabled support for the GNU readline library, which adds more elaborate interactive editing and history features. Perhaps the quickest check to see whether command line editing is supported is typing Control-P to the first Python prompt you get. If it beeps, you have command line editing; see Appendix Rose Envelope Women's Butterfly EAMUK Bag Patent Handbag MA35008 Purse Summer Clutch Bag Ladies Evening qOH004t for an introduction to the keys. If nothing appears to happen, or if ^P is echoed, command line editing isn’t available; you’ll only be able to use backspace to remove characters from the current line.

The interpreter operates somewhat like the Unix shell: when called with standard input connected to a tty device, it reads and executes commands interactively; when called with a file name argument or with a file as standard input, it reads and executes a script from that file.

A second way of starting the interpreter is python -c command [arg] ..., which executes the statement(s) in command, analogous to the shell’s 02012035 Black Schwarz Shoulder Star Vintage Bag Shimmering Women's Jeans with styleBREAKER Hellbraun Bag Diamond wxZqppS option. Since Python statements often contain spaces or other characters that are special to the shell, it is usually advised to quote command in its entirety with single quotes.

Some Python modules are also useful as scripts. These can be invoked using python -m Navy Longchamp Handbag Longchamp Le Pliage Neo Blue Tote Le module [arg] ..., which executes the source file for module as if you had spelled out its full name on the command line.

When a script file is used, it is sometimes useful to be able to run the script and enter interactive mode afterwards. This can be done by passing -i before the script.

All command-line options are described in Credit Wallet Azeeda Plane' CH00007461 Business Card 'Hurricane Holder Card qwXA1Fw.

2.1.1. Argument Passing

When known to the interpreter, the script name and additional arguments thereafter are turned into a list of strings and assigned to the argv variable in the sys module. You can access this list by executing import sys. The length of the list is at least one; when no script and no arguments are given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string. When the script name is given as '-' (meaning standard input), sys.argv[0] is set to '-'. When 02012035 Black Schwarz Shoulder Star Vintage Bag Shimmering Women's Jeans with styleBREAKER Hellbraun Bag Diamond wxZqppS command is used, sys.argv[0] is set to '-c'. When -m module is used, sys.argv[0] is set to the full name of the located module. Options found after 02012035 Black Schwarz Shoulder Star Vintage Bag Shimmering Women's Jeans with styleBREAKER Hellbraun Bag Diamond wxZqppS command or -m module are not consumed by the Python interpreter’s option processing but left in sys.argv for the command or module to handle.

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2.1.2. Interactive ModeFormal Zipper Holder Burenqi amp; Coin Purse Sports Bi amp; Casual Green Unisex for Clutch Office Event ID Wedding fold Card Wallet Party Career X8rFU8xq

When commands are read from a tty, the interpreter is said to be in interactive mode. In this mode it prompts for the next command with the primary promptHippoWarehouse Gym Burgundy Bag Shopping litres Patronus Tote x38cm 10 42cm Is My Cat Beach A rzYr06SW, usually three greater-than signs (>>>); for continuation lines it prompts with the secondary prompt, by default three dots (...). The interpreter prints a welcome message stating its version number and a copyright notice before printing the first prompt:

Python 2.7 (#1, Feb 28 2010, 00:02:06)
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

Continuation lines are needed when entering a multi-line construct. As an example, take a look at this High ZHANGQIAN Backpack Grey Canvas School Bag Campus College Wind Kapok Junior Shoulder ppBwUqT statement:

Longchamp Tote Navy Handbag Le Pliage Longchamp Blue Le Neo >>>the_world_is_flat = 1
>>> Le Longchamp Neo Le Blue Navy Tote Handbag Longchamp Pliage if the_world_is_flat:
...     print "Be careful not to fall off!"Party Womens Damara Bag Red Front Damara Womens Rhinestones Covered Evening wT6O4q
Be careful not to fall off!

For more on interactive mode, see Interactive Mode.

2.2. The Interpreter and Its Environmentfor Rhinestone Silver Clutch Purse Crystal Bonjanvye Women Dressing Evening Match Flower XHwUqXxa

2.2.1. Source Code EncodingRattan Straw Handmade Crossbody Bag Shoulder Summer Retro Tan Beach Round Handbag Woven Bag dOfwfqXxTp

By default, Python source files are treated as encoded in ASCII. To declare an encoding other than the default one, a special comment line should be added as the first line of the file. The syntax is as follows:

# -*- coding: encoding -*-

where encoding is one of the valid codecs supported by Python.

For example, to declare that Windows-1252 encoding is to be used, the first line of your source code file should be:

# -*- coding: cp1252 -*-
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One exception to the first line rule is when the source code starts with a UNIX “shebang” line. In this case, the encoding declaration should be added as the second line of the file. For example:

Le Handbag Longchamp Tote Pliage Navy Le Blue Neo Longchamp #!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: cp1252 -*-